21 Aralık 2010 Salı


GFAJ-1 is a strain of rod-shaped bacterium in the family Halomonadaceae. The extremophile was isolated from the hypersaline and alkaline Mono Lake in eastern California, and reported as new to science by a research team led by NASA astrobiologist Felisa Wolfe-Simon in a 2010 Science journal publication. According to the authors, the microbe, when starved of phosphorus, is capable of substituting arsenic for a small percentage of its phosphorus and sustain its growth. Immediately after publication, other microbiologists and biochemists expressed doubt about this hypothesis, and the claim that this bacterium uses arsenic instead of phosphorus in its metabolism is robustly debated in the scientific community.

The GFAJ-1 bacterium was discovered by geomicrobiologist Felisa Wolfe-Simon, a NASA astrobiology fellow in residence at the US Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California. GFAJ stands for "Give Felisa a Job". The organism was isolated and cultured beginning in 2009 from samples she and her colleagues collected from sediments at the bottom of Mono Lake, California, U.S.A. Mono Lake is hypersaline (about 90 grams/liter) and highly alkaline (pH 9.8). It also has one of the highest natural concentrations of arsenic in the world (200 μM). The discovery was widely publicized on 2 December 2010.


A phosphorus-free growth medium (which actually contained 3.1 ± 0.3 μM of residual phosphate, from impurities in reagents) was used to culture the bacteria in a regime of increasing exposure to arsenate; the initial level of 0.1 mM was eventually ramped up to 40 mM. Alternative media used for comparative experiments contained either high levels of phosphate (1.5 mM) with no arsenate, or had neither added phosphate nor added arsenate. It was observed that GFAJ-1 could grow through many doublings in cell numbers when cultured in either phosphate or arsenate media, but could not grow when placed in a medium of a similar composition to which neither phosphate nor arsenate was added. The phosphorus content of the arsenic-fed, phosphorus-starved bacteria (as measured by ICP-MS) was only 0.019 (± 0.001) % by dry weight, one thirtieth of that when grown in phosphate, and about one hundredth that of most bacteria. This phosphorus content was also only about one tenth of the cells' arsenic content (0.19 ± 0.25 % by dry weight). Other data from the same study obtained with nano-SIMS does however suggest a ~75-fold excess of phosphate (P) over arsenic (As) when expressed as P:C and As:C ratios, even in cells grown with arsenate and no added phosphate. When cultured in the arsenate solution, GFAJ-1 only grew 60% as fast as it did in phosphate solution. The phosphate-starved bacteria had an intracellular volume 1.5 times normal; the greater volume appeared to be associated with the appearance of large "vacuole-like regions".

When the researchers added isotope-labeled arsenate to the solution to track its distribution, they found that arsenic was present in the cellular fractions containing the bacteria's proteins, lipids and metabolites such as ATP, as well as its DNA and RNA. Nucleic acids from stationary phase cells starved of phosphorus were concentrated via five extractions (one with phenol, three with phenol-chloroform and one with chloroform extraction solvent), followed by ethanol precipitation. Although direct evidence of the incorporation of arsenic into biomolecules is still lacking, radioactivity measurements suggested that approximately one-tenth (11.0 ± 0.1 %) of the arsenic absorbed by these bacteria ended up in the fraction that contained the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and all other co-precipitated compounds not extracted by the previous treatments. A comparable control experiment with isotope-labeled phosphate was not performed.

17 Ekim 2010 Pazar

Nokia E72

The Nokia E72 is a smartphone from the Nokia Eseries range. It is the successor to the Nokia E71 and is based on a similar design and form factor, and offers a similar feature set. The Nokia E72 is an enterprise-based smartphone (as it is a Nokia Eseries device) and has standard features including mobile email, calendar and instant messaging amongst many others.

The Nokia E72 has a new Optical Navi Key feature as opposed to the standard D-pad used on many other Nokia devices including the Nokia E71 - this is said to improve the ease of scrolling through menus, emails, Internet browser, and images as it is an optical sensor rather than a series of closely-spaced buttons. In comparison to its predecessor, the Nokia E72 is said to have a higher level of performance (likely due to the faster 600 MHz ARM processor) and also includes a 5 Megapixel AF camera. Other changes and improvements are software-based including changes to the user interface and built-in messaging application amongst others.

The Nokia E72 was announced on June 15, 2009 at the Nokia Connections 2009 event in Singapore.

The Nokia E73 Mode is a USA version of the E72 for T-Mobile USA, with support for T-Mobile's UMA service and Band IV support for 3G.

Features and enhancements from E7
New features

* Symbian OS 9.3, Series 60 v3.2 UI, Feature Pack 2.
* Optical navi key, along with the conventional D-Pad
* 3.5 mm audio jack
* Ovi Maps with free lifetime drive and walk voice assisted navigation
* Use of front facing camera (video call, VGA snapshots and QCIF videos for 15 seconds)
* USB charging
* Active noise cancellation
* Magnetometer sensor
* Digital compass
* RDS support
* PictBridge
* uPnP Media Streaming support (Not present on E73)
* UMA (E73)


* 3.5mm jack in contrast to the 2.5mm jack used in the E71.
* 12 hours of talktime(2G) instead of the E71's 10hrs (2G).
* Tri-band UMTS / HSDPA / HSUPA instead of Dual-band
* HSDPA support of up to 10.2 Mbit/s instead of 3.6
* Added HSUPA at 2.0 Mbit/s
* Improved CPU clock speed from 369 MHz to 600 MHz
* Real time Push e-mail HTML
* Improved reception from the E71's fluctuating signal reception
* 5 Megapixel camera (up from 3.2)
* VGA at 15 FPS (E72) rather than QVGA at 15 FPS (E71)
* Added flashlight feature


Available November 2009
Screen 320×240 px, 2.36 in, up to 16.7 million colours
Camera 5 megapixel (2592 x 1944 pixels) with autofocus and LED flash
Second camera Front facing
Operating system S60 3rd Edition Feature Pack 2 UI on Symbian OS v9.3
Input QWERTY thumb keyboard, optical navigation key
CPU 600 MHz ARM11 processor
Memory 250 MB Internal user storage
ROM: 512 MB
SDRAM: 128 MB ~71 MB Free Executable RAM
Memory card MicroSDHC Hot-swappable, support for up to 16GB
GSM 800 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 MHz
Tri Band UTMS / HSPDA / HSUPA / 850 / 1900 / 2100 MHz (North American Version)
Connectivity WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 b,g, Integrated & Assisted GPS, Bluetooth 2.0, microUSB, 3.5 mm audio jack
Battery BP-4L, 3.7V 1,500 mAh lithium-polymer
Physical size114 x 59.5 x 10.1 mm
Weight 128 g (with battery)

FOTA (Firmware update Over The Air)
Accelerometer Sensor
Ambient Light Sensor
Magnetometer Sensor
Digital Compass

2 Ekim 2010 Cumartesi

Laughing Man

"The Laughing Man" is a short story written by J. D. Salinger and originally published in The New Yorker magazine on March 19, 1949. It largely takes the structure of a story within a story and is thematically occupied with the relationship between narrative and narrator, and the end of youth. The story also appears in Salinger's short story collection Nine Stories.

The Laughing Man (笑い男, Warai Otoko?) is a fictional hacker character in the anime series Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex:


The hacker's first appearance in the GITS: SAC storyline is six years before the anime starts, when he assaulted the head of Serano Genomics in public on February 3, 2024, hiding his face from eyewitnesses and cameras with his Laughing Man logo. The Laughing Man is such an expert that he can "steal eyes" of entire crowds, in real time—hacking their visual cyber-brain implants, either to make himself appear invisible or to hide his face with the cartoon logo. He can also alter memories, erasing all records of his existence. Many of those who indeed saw his face would only recall and refer to the stylized logo as depicted above. Togusa was one such person, as were many of the witnesses of the initial incident involving the head of Serano Genomics. His talents were recognized even by Motoko Kusanagi and Aramaki. When Section 9 finally tracked him down, they offered him a position on the Section 9 payroll; The Laughing Man was flattered by the offer but politely declined it.

The Laughing Man has quite a fascination with The Catcher in the Rye, as if the work greatly influenced him: like that novel's main character, Holden Caulfield, he can't stand "phonies" (corrupt politicians in this case). He also kept a prized left-handed baseball catcher's mitt for a time with a quote from The Catcher in the Rye written on it: "You know what I'd like to be? I mean, if I had my goddamn choice, I'd just be a catcher in the rye and all". Ironically, while the mitt is actually real, the term "a lefty's catcher mitt" is described in an episode as being net jargon for "something people think exists, but really doesn't." Aoi also has stated fairly out front that he is an atheist (or is, at the very least, completely comfortable with using blasphemous statements such as directly insulting God).

For an unknown amount of time before the storyline begins, the Laughing Man lived in the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's Rehabilitation Center, posing as, not-coincidentally, a deaf-mute in a wheelchair. He apparently revealed his ability to walk and talk to the other patients at the center, who knew him as "leader" ("chief" in the English dub) and referred to his occasional periods of communication as "visits." When Togusa comes to investigate the center, he discovers that someone has written the famous Laughing Man logo text in a PBX cabinet but has added "or should I?" Apparently feeling that he was about to be discovered, the Laughing Man erases all record of his existence from the center, including wiping the memories of his friends (who apparently not only consent to this treatment, but seem to expect it as if they know of it happening before) and vanishes again before Section 9 can track him down.

The Laughing Man has made it a point that he never came up with the name "The Laughing Man" for himself, it was a label that the media gave based on the J.D. Salinger quote on the logo that eventually stuck.

The Laughing Man's kidnapping of the head of Serano Genomics was actually a spontaneous act, and he did not strike again until some six years later. However, following the kidnapping there was, for some time, a large wave of "Laughing Man"-related graffiti attacks, corporate vandalism and extortion. It was later revealed that a corrupt power cabal in the Japanese government used the sudden appearance of the Laughing Man to their own advantage by carrying out acts of corporate sabotage, then heavily using the "Laughing Man" motif in order to fool the media into thinking it was the Laughing Man's doing, thus shifting suspicion from themselves and their illegal actions.

An unexpected element was that 39 people who were arrested in regard to the assassination attempt on Secretary General Daido all showed no sign of external influence by The Laughing Man, or anyone else. It was thought that many of the direct attackers were not influenced at all; they attempted the assassination to be a part of The Laughing Man's effort for the truth. The police, however, informed the public that they were forced to do it through ghost hacking.

"The Laughing Man" became something of a pop culture obsession. Much to the chagrin of the actual Laughing Man - the irony being that since everybody used his icon and name for their own purposes, the original meaning of his actions, an artful forced confession of the truth through fear in the public eye, became "phony" itself. The effort to stand for and demand the truth was also lost forever. A further irony is that the Laughing Man icon itself is a retooling by the Laughing Man of the fictional Starchild Coffee company logo (itself a reference to the Starbucks logo) and the Sunflower Society logo.

The Laughing Man admitted that he embarked on his notorious kidnapping caper after chancing upon a file in the depths of the Net detailing the extensive corruption in the corporate world, leaving the true identity of the propagator of the aforementioned incidents a mystery. The identified Laughing Man confesses to have been a brash student at the time, but had mellowed out somewhat over the six years since the Serano Genomics event, seeming to now prefer a more intellectual approach over his former overzealous and radical approach. His real name, as far as can be ascertained from the number of events where he appears, is Aoi, meaning Blue in Japanese.

After the events of the Section 9 raid by the Umibozu and the last meeting with Motoko and Aramaki, it was discovered that Aoi, though responsible for the initial incident that made the Laughing Man a phenomenon, was not in fact its true originator. He chose to confront Serano only because of the file he found, and despite years of extensive investigation on his own part, he never discovered the origin of that file. It could be said that whoever abandoned the file was in fact the "real" Laughing Man - and it is possible that he obtained it from someone else. Aoi tells Aramaki to make of that what he will.

Aramaki understands the sheer absurdity of it all, but is still impressed enough with Aoi's skills to offer him a position with Section 9. Though Aoi is deeply flattered by the offer, he declined. Afterwards, he disappeared again for the last time from Japanese society; he is probably employed as a librarian in the National Library. Earlier in the series when trying to crack the Laughing Man case, Togusa theorizes that because the Laughing Man was such a superb hacker, he placed no value at all in digital media because it could easily be overwritten or deleted. This would explain Aoi's choice to work in a library, because paper media, existing in a real, physical state, cannot be so easily gotten rid of or altered.

27 Eylül 2010 Pazartesi

Kite Runner

The Kite Runner is a novel by Khaled Hosseini. Published in 2003 by Riverhead Books, it is Hosseini's first novel, and was adapted into a film of the same name in 2007.

The Kite Runner tells the story of Amir, a young boy from the Wazir Akbar Khan district of Kabul, who befriends Hassan, the son of his father's Hazara servant. The story is set against a backdrop of tumultuous events, from the fall of Afghanistan's monarchy through the Soviet invasion, the mass exodus of refugees to Pakistan and the United States, and the rise of the Taliban regime.

The Kite Runner received the South African Boeke Prize in 2004. It was the first 2005 best seller in the United States, according to Nielsen BookScan. It was also voted the Reading Group Book of the Year for 2006 and 2007 and headed a list of 60 titles submitted by entrants to the Penguin/Orange Reading Group prize.


The Kite Runner was published in 2003 and in 2007 adapted as a motion picture starring Khalid Abdalla (Amir), Homayoun Ershadi (Baba), and Ahmad Khan Mahmoodzada (Hassan). Directed by Marc Forster and with a screenplay by David Benioff, this movie won numerous awards and was nominated for an Oscar (2008), the BAFTA Film Award (2008) and the Critics Choice Award (2008). However, Manhola Dargis of the New York Times states that "The back of my paperback copy of this Khaled Hosseini novel is sprinkled with words like 'powerful' and 'haunting' and 'riveting' and 'unforgettable'. It's a good guess this film will be rolled around in a similarly large helping of lard."

In addition to the film adaptation, the novel was also adapted to the stage by Bay Area playwright Matthew Spangler. David Ira Goldstein (Arizona Theater Company Artistic Director) directed a cast that included Barzin Akhavan as Amir, Demosthenes Chrysan (General Taheri), Gregor Paslawsky (Rahim Khan) and James Saba (Ali), all from New York City, Thamos Fiscelle (Baba) of Los Angeles, and Bay Area actors Craig Piaget (Young Amir), Lowell Abellon (Young Hassan), Rinabeth Apostol (Soraya), Adam Yazbeck (Assef), Zarif Kabier Sadiqi, Wahab Shayek, and Lani Carissa Wong. The cast was joined on stage by Tabla player Salar Nader.

The Kite Runner was given its southwest premiere on stage at the Arizona Theatre Company in September-October 2009. David Ira Goldstein again directed. The cast was the same except that Korken Alexander replaced Adam Yazbeck as Assef and Remi Sandri replaced Demosthenes Chrysan as General Taheri.

The Kite Runner is receiving its Mid-West premiere at Actor's Theatre of Louisville directed by Artistic Director, Marc Masterson. The Cast includes Jos Viramontes (Amir), Jose Pere Flores (Young Amir), Nasser Faris (Baba), Matt Pascua (Hassan/Sohrab), Zarif Kabier Sadiqi (Assef), James Saba (Ali/Zaman), Remi Sandri (General Taheri), Aadya Bedi (Sorya), Omar Koury (Farid), Ariya Ghahramani, Kario Pereira-Bailey and Annie Pesch. The cast is once again joined by Salar Nader playing life Tabla for the production.

25 Eylül 2010 Cumartesi


An array of 17 purpose-built oxygen-depleted titanium dioxide memristors built at HP Labs, imaged by an atomic force microscope. The wires are about 50 nm, or 150 atoms, wide. Electric current through the memristors shifts the oxygen vacancies, causing a gradual and persistent change in electrical resistance.

A memristor (a portmanteau of "memory resistor") is a passive two-terminal circuit element in which the resistance is a function of the time history of the current and voltage through the device. Memristor theory was formulated and named by Leon Chua in a 1971 paper.

On April 30, 2008 a team at HP Labs announced the development of a switching memristor. Based on a thin film of titanium dioxide, it has a regime of operation with an approximately linear charge-resistance relationship. These devices are being developed for application in nanoelectronic memories, computer logic, and neuromorphic computer architectures.

A memristor is a passive two-terminal electronic component for which the resistance (dV/dI) is proportional to the amount of charge that has flowed through the circuit. When current flows in one direction through the device, the resistance increases; and when current flows in the opposite direction, the resistance decreases. When the current is stopped, the component retains the last resistance that it had, and when the flow of charge starts again, the resistance of the circuit will be what it was when it was last active.

More generally, a memristor is a two-terminal component in which the resistance depends on the integral of the input applied to the terminals, rather than on the instantaneous value of the input at the terminals. Since the element "remembers" the amount of current that has passed through it in the past, it was tagged by Chua with the name "memristor." A general memristor is any of various kinds of passive two-terminal circuit elements that maintain a functional relationship between the time integrals of current and voltage. This function, called memristance, is similar to variable resistance. Specifically engineered memristors provide controllable resistance, but such devices are not commercially available. Other devices such as batteries and varistors have memristance, but it does not normally dominate their behavior. The definition of the memristor is based solely on fundamental circuit variables, similar to the resistor, capacitor, and inductor. Unlike those three elements, which are allowed in linear time-invariant or LTI system theory, memristors are nonlinear and may be described by any of a variety of time-varying functions of net charge. There is no such thing as a generic memristor. Instead, each device implements a particular function, wherein either the integral of voltage determines the integral of current, or vice versa. A linear time-invariant memristor is simply a conventional resistor.

In his 1971 paper, memristor theory was formulated and named by Leon Chua, extrapolating the conceptual symmetry between the resistor, inductor, and capacitor, and inferring that the memristor is a similarly fundamental device. Other scientists had already proposed fixed nonlinear flux-charge relationships, but Chua's theory introduced generality.

Like other two-terminal components (e.g., resistor, capacitor, inductor), real-world devices are never purely memristors ("ideal memristor"), but will also exhibit some amount of capacitance, resistance, and inductance.

Williams' solid-state memristors can be combined into devices called crossbar latches, which could replace transistors in future computers, taking up a much smaller area.

They can also be fashioned into non-volatile solid-state memory, which would allow greater data density than hard drives with access times potentially similar to DRAM, replacing both components. HP prototyped a crossbar latch memory using the devices that can fit 100 gigabits in a square centimeter, and has designed a highly scalable 3D design (consisting of up to 1000 layers or 1 petabit per cm3).[7] HP has reported that its version of the memristor is currently about one-tenth the speed of DRAM. The devices' resistance would be read with alternating current so that the stored value would not be affected.

Some patents related to memristors appear to include applications in programmable logic, signal processing, neural networks, and control systems.

Recently, a simple electronic circuit consisting of an LC network and a memristor was used to model experiments on adaptive behavior of unicellular organisms. It was shown that the electronic circuit subjected to a train of periodic pulses learns and anticipates the next pulse to come, similarly to the behavior of slime molds Physarum polycephalum subjected to periodic changes of environment. Such a learning circuit may find applications, e.g., in pattern recognition.

18 Eylül 2010 Cumartesi


90377 Sedna is a trans-Neptunian object, discovered in 2003, which currently lies about three times as far from the Sun as Neptune. However, its farthest orbital distance from the Sun is estimated to be 960 astronomical units (AU), and thus it is, for the majority of its orbit, the most distant known object in the Solar System after long-period comets.

Roughly two-thirds the size of Pluto, Sedna is hypothetically large enough to be rounded by its own gravity, and thus would qualify as a dwarf planet under current definitions. However, its distance from the Sun makes determining its shape difficult. Spectroscopy has revealed that Sedna's surface composition is similar to that of some other trans-Neptunian objects, being largely a mixture of water, methane and nitrogen ices with tholins. Its surface is one of the reddest in the Solar System.

Sedna's exceptionally long and elongated orbit, taking approximately 12,000 years to complete, and distant point of closest approach to the Sun, at 76 AU, have led to much speculation as to its origin. The Minor Planet Center currently places Sedna in the scattered disc, a group of objects sent into highly elongated orbits by the gravitational influence of Neptune. However, this classification has been contested, as Sedna never comes close enough to Neptune to have been scattered by it, leading some astronomers to conclude that it is in fact the first known member of the inner Oort cloud. Others speculate that it might have been tugged into its current orbit by a passing star, perhaps one within the Sun's birth cluster, or even that it was captured from another star system. Another hypothesis suggests that its orbit may be evidence for a large planet beyond the orbit of Neptune. Astronomer Mike Brown, who co-discovered Sedna as well as the dwarf planets Eris, Haumea, and Makemake, believes it to be the most scientifically important trans-Neptunian object found to date, as understanding its peculiar orbit is likely to yield valuable information about the origin and early evolution of the Solar System.

Orbit and rotation

Barring comets, Sedna has the longest orbital period of any known object in the Solar System, calculated at between 11,800 and 12,100 years. This represents a best-fit solution, as Sedna has only been observed over a brief part of its orbital arc. Its orbit is extremely elliptical, with an aphelion estimated at 960 AU and a perihelion at about 76 AU. At its discovery it was approaching perihelion at 89.6 AU from the Sun, and was the most distant object in the Solar System yet observed. Eris was later detected by the same survey at 97 AU. Although the orbits of some long-period comets extend farther than that of Sedna, they are too dim to be discovered except when approaching perihelion in the inner Solar System. Even as Sedna nears its perihelion in late 2075 to mid 2076, the Sun would appear merely as a bright star in its sky: with an angular diameter too small to resolve as a disc, it would be only 100 times brighter than a full Moon on Earth.

When first discovered, Sedna was believed to have an unusually long rotational period (20 to 50 days). It was initially speculated that Sedna's rotation was slowed by the gravitational pull of a large binary companion, similar to Pluto's moon Charon. A search for such a satellite by the Hubble Space Telescope in March 2004 found nothing, and subsequent measurements from the MMT telescope suggest a much shorter rotation period, only about 10 hours, rather typical for bodies of its size.

5 Eylül 2010 Pazar

Bulldozer Core (AMD)

Bulldozer is the codename AMD has given to one of the next-generation CPU cores after the K10 microarchitecture for the company's M-SPACE design methodology, with the core specifically aimed at 10 watt to 100 watt TDP computing products. Bulldozer is a completely new design developed from the ground up. AMD claims dramatic performance-per-watt improvements in HPC applications with Bulldozer cores. Products implementing the Bulldozer core are planned for release in 2011.

According to AMD, Bulldozer-based CPUs will be based on advanced 32nm SOI process technology and utilize a new approach to multithreaded computer performance that, according to press notes, "balances dedicated and shared compute resources to provide a highly compact, high core count design that is easily replicated on a chip for performance scaling." In other words, by eliminating some of the redundancies that naturally creep into multicore designs, AMD hopes to take better advantage of its hardware capabilities, while utilizing less power.

The Bulldozer cores will support most of the instruction sets currently implemented in Intel processors (including SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AES, CLMUL), future Instruction sets announced by Intel (AVX), as well as future instruction sets proposed by AMD (XOP and FMA4).

As of November 2009, Bulldozer-based implementations built on 32nm SOI with HKMG are scheduled to arrive in 2011 for both servers and desktops, as the 16-core Opteron processor codenamed Interlagos and as the 4- or 8-core desktop processor codenamed Zambezi.

Bulldozer is the next-generation micro-architecture and processor design developed from the ground up by AMD. Bulldozer will be the first major redesign of AMD’s processor architecture since 2003, when the firm launched its Athlon 64/Opteron (K8) processors. Bulldozer will feature two 128-bit FMA-capable FPUs which can be combined into one 256-bit FPU. This design is accompanied with two integer cores each with 4 pipelines (the fetch/decode stage is shared). Bulldozer will also introduce shared L2 cache in the new architecture. AMD calls this design a "Bulldozer module". A 16-core processor design would feature eight of these modules, but the operating system will see each module as two physical cores.

The module is similar to an SMT core, but enhanced with a dedicated integer core and scheduler for each thread. Because the shared floating point core is significantly enhanced, performance could get beyond that of two equivalent Bobcat cores while one of the running threads is integer-only.

Bulldozer Design Breakdown

* Two tightly coupled, "conventional" x86 out-of-order processing engines which AMD internally named module
(Single-Module ==> Dual-Core, Dual-Module ==> Quad-Core, Quad-Module ==> Octa-Core etc...)
* Between 8MB to 16MB of L3 cache shared among all Modules on the same silicon die
* DDR3-1866 and Higher Memory Level Parallelism
* Dual channel DDR3 integrated memory controler (support for PC3-12800 (DDR3-1600))
* Cluster Multi-threading (CMT) Technology
* Bulldozer module consists of the following:
o 128kB L2 cache inside each module (shared between module cores)
o 4kB L1 data cache per core and 2-way 16kB L1 instruction cache per module L1 cache, Fruehe for THW
o Two dedicated integer cores
- each consist of 2 ALU and 2 AGU which are capable for total of 4 independent arithmetic or memory operations per clock per core
- duplicating integer schedulers and execution pipelines offers dedicated hardware to each of two threads which significantly increase performance in multithreaded integer applications
- second integer core increases Bulldozer module die by around 12%, which at chip level adds about 5% of total die space[9]
o Two symmetrical 128-bit FMAC (fused multiply-add (FMA) capability) Floating Point Pipelines per module that can be unified into one large 256-bit wide unit if one of integer cores dispatch AVX instruction and two symmetrical x87/MMX/3DNow! capable FPPs for backward compatibility with SSE2 non-optimized software
* 32nm SOI process with implemented first generation GF's High-K Metal Gate (HKMG)
* Support for AMD's only SSE5 128-bit instructions
- incl. three smaller supplemental extensions CVT16, XOP and FMA4 instruction set, which are now part of SSE5 specification (since May 2009 revision)
* Support for Intel's Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) (Supports 256-Bit FP Operations via AVX)SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AES, CLMUL), future Instruction sets announced by Intel (AVX), as well as future instruction sets proposed by AMD (XOP and FMA4
* Hyper Transport Technology rev.3.1 (3.20 GHz, 6.4 GT/s, 51.6 GB/s, 16-bit uplink/16-bit downlink) [first implemented into HY-D1 revision "Magny-Cours" on the socket G34 Opteron platform in March 2010 and "Lisbon" on the socket C32 Opteron platform in June 2010]
* Socket AM3+ (AM3r2)
- 938pin(?), DDR3 support
- will retain only backwards compatiblity with previous Socket AM3/AM2 processors ("new AM3+ socket for consumer versions of Bulldozer CPUs. AM2 and AM3 processors will work in the AM3+ socket, but Bulldozer chips will not work in non-AM3+ motherboards")
* Min-Max Power Usage - 10-100 watts
* Bulldozer Module sharing levels Bulldozer module

3 Eylül 2010 Cuma

Deniable Encryption

In cryptography and steganography, deniable encryption is encryption that allows its users to convincingly deny the fact that the data is encrypted or, assuming that the data is obviously encrypted, its users can convincingly deny that they are able to decrypt it. Such convincing denials may or may not be genuine, e.g., although suspicions might exist that the data is encrypted, it may be impossible to prove it without the cooperation of the users. In any case, even if the data is encrypted then the users genuinely may not have the ability to decrypt it. Deniable encryption serves to undermine an attacker's confidence either that data is encrypted, or that the person in possession of it can decrypt it and provide the associated plaintext.

Normally ciphertexts decrypt to a single plaintext and hence once decrypted, the encryption user cannot claim that he encrypted a different message. Deniable encryption allows its users to decrypt the ciphertext to produce a different (innocuous but plausible) plaintext and insist that it is what they encrypted. The holder of the ciphertext will not have the means to differentiate between the true plaintext, and the bogus-claim plaintext.

Deniable encryption allows an encrypted message to be decrypted to different sensible plaintexts, depending on the key used, or otherwise makes it impossible to prove the existence of the real message without the proper encryption key. This allows the sender to have plausible deniability if compelled to give up his or her encryption key. The notion of "deniable encryption" was introduced by Julian Assange & Ralf Weinmann in the Rubberhose filesystem and explored in detail in a paper by Ran Canetti, Cynthia Dwork, Moni Naor, and Rafail Ostrovsky in 1996.

Modern forms of deniable encryption

Modern deniable encryption techniques exploit the pseudorandom permutation properties of existing block ciphers, making it cryptographically infeasible to prove that the ciphertext is not random padding data generated by a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator. This is used in combination with some decoy data that the user would plausibly want to keep confidential that will be revealed to the attacker, claiming that this is all there is. This form of deniable encryption is sometimes referred to as "steganographic encryption".

One example of deniable encryption is a cryptographic filesystem that employs a concept of abstract "layers", where each layer would be decrypted with a different encryption key. Additionally, special "chaff layers" are filled with random data in order to have plausible deniability of the existence of real layers and their encryption keys. The user will store decoy files on one or more layers while denying the existence of others, claiming that the rest of space is taken up by chaff layers. Physically, these types of filesystems are typically stored in a single directory consisting of equal-length files with filenames that are either randomized (in case they belong to chaff layers), or cryptographic hashes of strings identifying the blocks. The timestamps of these files are always randomized. Examples of this approach include Rubberhose filesystem and PhoneBookFS.

Another approach utilized by some conventional disk encryption software suites is creating a second encrypted volume within a container volume. The container volume is first formatted by filling it with encrypted random data and then initializing a filesystem on it. The user then fills some of the filesystem with legitimate, but plausible-looking decoy files that the user would seem to have an incentive to hide. Next, a new encrypted volume (the hidden volume) is allocated within the free space of the container filesystem which will be used for data the user actually wants to hide. Since an adversary cannot differentiate between encrypted data and the random data used to initialize the outer volume, this inner volume is now undetectable. Concerns have, however, been raised for the level of plausible deniability in hiding information this way – the contents of the "outer" container filesystem (in particular the access or modification timestamps on the data stored) could raise suspicions as a result of being frozen in its initial state to prevent the user from corrupting the hidden volume. This problem can be eliminated by instructing the system not to protect the hidden volume, although this could result in lost data. FreeOTFE and BestCrypt can have many hidden volumes in a container; TrueCrypt is limited to one hidden volume.

Needless to say, insecure block ciphers or pseudorandom number generators can make it possible to compromise the deniability of such filesystems. To escape the assumption that the used pseudorandom number generation is cryptographically secure, it has been advised to instead fill the encrypted space with pseudorandom data which has itself been encrypted, thus being protected by a separate encryption key since encrypted data is impossible to differentiate from encrypted data In addition to that, the flawed use of block cipher modes of operation can also compromise the cipher algorithm due to watermarking attacks.

2 Eylül 2010 Perşembe


Singularity is a video game developed by Raven Software published by Activision and released for Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3, Singularity is Raven Software's second title based on Epic Games' Unreal Engine 3. The title was announced at Activision's E3 2008 press conference.

The game takes place on a mysterious island known as "Katorga-12" where Russian experiments involving "E99" took place during the height of the Cold War era. Sometime during 1955, a terrible catastrophe involving experiments attempting to form a "Singularity" occurred on the island, causing the island's very existence to be covered up by the Russian government. The player controls Nate Renko, a Black Ops soldier who is sent to investigate bizarre radiation emissions coming from the island. The operation goes poorly when team crashes during transport and the operation is scrapped. After regaining consciousness, Renko discovers that the island is constantly shifting between the time periods of 1955 and 2010. Renko acidentally shifts the timeline by saving a scientist who died in 1955. Renko finds the TMD (Time Manipulation Device), a device created by Dr. Victor Barisov. Barisov, the scientist who was in charge of the Katorga-12 experiments, reveals that a man named Nikolai Demichev, also a scientist on Katorga-12, used E99 technology to conquer the world. During the quest to stop Demichev, the player deals with hostile Russian forces in both time periods, and the mutated flora, fauna and former residents of the island, some of which have developed extreme power of their own.

In response to the United States' development and deployment of the atomic bomb, Joseph Stalin makes nuclear research the top scientific priority of the USSR. On a small island near Kamchatka, scientists discover an isotope of E99 that has strange properties. A research base named Katorga-12 is established on the island. E99-related research continued on the island until late 1955, when the island was destroyed by an accident. The Soviet government then erased any information about Katorga-12 and suppressed public knowledge of the accident.

In 2010, a sudden electromagnetic surge from Katorga-12 damages an American spy satellite. A military reconnaissance team is sent to investigate the uninhabited island, but a second surge causes their helicopter to crash. Captain Nathaniel Renko, a member of the reconnaissance team, enters the abandoned scientific complex on the island, where he phases between 1955 and 2010.

Renko is first transported back to 1955 during a major fire at the facility, where he saves one Nikolai Demichev. As this happens, an unidentified man yells, "Renko, stop! Don't let Demichev live!", before being killed by a ceiling collapse. Dr. Demichev would have otherwise died in the fire; by rescuing him, Renko altered history. Renko is abruptly returned to the year 2010, where he discovers that the island has changed. He encounters strange and violent creatures, and regroups with Devlin, a second survivor of the helicopter crash. Both soldiers are captured by Russian soldiers under the command of Demichev. Devlin demands asylum at the American embassy, at which point he is executed by Demichev.

Renko is saved by an organization called Mir-12. Mir-12 is a secretive resistance organization that bases its existence off of a journal recovered from the accident on Katorga-12. The journal declares that Nathaniel Renko will be able to stop Demichev using the "TMD", or "Time Manipulation Device". This device was apparently created by Dr. Viktor Barisov, who died in a laboratory accident, leaving Demichev to command the research base and eventually rule the world. Kathryn tells Renko to find the TMD and use it to go back in time and save Barisov. Renko succeeds and returns to 2010, where Barisov is now alive and well.

Barisov and Renko plan to fix history by going back in time and destroying the island's Singularity tower with an E-99 bomb. Renko recovers an E99 bomb from a sunken ship (the Pearl), but Kathryn dies in the process.

Renko and Barisov then fight their way into the Singularity Tower, which lies at the heart of Katorga-12. When they reach the tower's reactor, Renko travels back in time and uses the E99 bomb to destroy the reactor; he returns to 2010 moments before the tower is destroyed. It is implied that this explosion triggered the destruction of the Singularity and mutated the island's population.

Upon returning to 2010, Renko finds that nothing has changed. He sees Demichev holding Barisov at gunpoint. Demichev reveals that he rebuilt the facility after the bomb was detonated (presumably at another location). Renko shoots and non-fatally wounds Demichev, freeing Barisov. Barisov realizes that Demichev's rescue is what altered the timeline, and tells Renko that the only way to fix the timeline is for Renko to go back in time and stop himself from rescuing Demichev. Demichev reveals that Renko already tried that; he was the unidentified man that Renko saw in the fire. The three realize that the only way for Renko to stop Demichev's rescue is to kill his past self. Demichev offers Renko unlimited power in exchange for the TMD. The player is left with a choice resulting in three endings, based on whether Renko shoots Demichev, Barisov, or both men.

If the player shoots Barisov, he joins forces with Demichev and the team succeed in taking over most of the world, with Renko training the Katorga-12 mutants as soldiers and using them as first wave attackers in all of his battles. But with his control of the TMD, Demichev feels Renko is even more powerful than he is and takes precautionary measures against him by starting a weapons research program in the former United States. This settles the world into another Cold War with Renko on one side and Demichev on the other, although Renko is most likely to win, seeing he has almost complete control over the East and his power is slowly consuming the West.

If the player shoots both Demichev and Barisov, Renko leaves Katorga-12 and allows the world to fall into chaos. The public believes his very existence to be a myth as he disappears with the TMD in his possession. The Singularity explodes some years later and destroys the eastern coast of Russia and the Western coast of Alaska. Katorga-12 mutants escape onto mainland Russia and wreak havoc. A new leader rises in the former United States and is reported to be very aggressive and tyrannical as he leads the entire world with an iron fist. The in-game cutscenes and narration heavily imply the leader to be Renko himself.

If the player chooses to kill Demichev, or if he shoots neither man, then Barisov urges Renko to go back in time and stop himself from rescuing Demichev by killing his past self. The player then assumes the position of the man who shouted at Renko in the fire, only instead of being crushed by debris, he shoots the past Renko. Shooting the past version of Renko sends the narrative back to Devlin and Renko's arrival at Katorga-12. The game's intro credits are shown written in Russian, the helicopters bear the hammer and sickle on the side, and Devlin, armed with a Russian weapon, comments that monitoring Katorga-12 is a waste of time. The helicopter moves past the statue seen in the intro credits, but it has changed into a massive monument to Barisov wearing the TMD. Renko seems to have retained his memories from the rest of the game, as he checks his left hand when he sees the monument. Renko and Devlin's mission is called off by their dispatcher -- Red Fleet instead of Titan One -- and Devlin refers to Renko as "comrade". It is implied that Barisov recovered the TMD from the fire and used it to unite the world under Soviet rule.

A post-credit scene shows a wounded Kathryn emerging in 1955 from the Pearl's wreckage and hiding in an office. Bleeding heavily, she writes "Renko" in the Mir-12 journal.

26 Ağustos 2010 Perşembe

Single Point of Failure

A single point of failure (SPOF) is a part of a system which, if it fails, will stop the entire system from working. They are undesirable in any system whose goal is high availability, be it a network, software application or other industrial system.

The assessment of a potentially single location of failure identifies the critical components of a complex system that would provoke a total systems failure in case of malfunction. Highly reliable systems may not rely on any such individual component.

20 Ağustos 2010 Cuma

Deep Crack

In cryptography, the EFF DES cracker (nicknamed "Deep Crack") is a machine built by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) in 1998 to perform a brute force search of DES cipher's key space — that is, to decrypt an encrypted message by trying every possible key. The aim in doing this was to prove that DES's key is not long enough to be secure.

DES uses a 56-bit key, meaning that there are 2^56 possible keys under which a message can be encrypted. This is exactly 72,057,594,037,927,936, or approximately 72 quadrillion, possible keys. When DES was approved as a federal standard in 1976, a machine fast enough to test that many keys in a reasonable time would have cost an unreasonable amount of money to build.

Deep Crack was designed by Cryptography Research, Inc., Advanced Wireless Technologies and the EFF. The principal designer was Paul Kocher, president of Cryptography Research. Advanced Wireless Technologies built 1856 custom ASIC DES chips (called Deep Crack or AWT-4500), housed on 29 circuit boards of 64 chips each. The boards were then fitted in six cabinets and mounted in a Sun-4/470 chasis. The search was coordinated by a single PC which assigned ranges of keys to the chips. The entire machine was capable of testing over 90 billion keys per second. It would take about 9 days to test every possible key at that rate. On average, the correct key would be found in half that time.

In 2006, another custom hardware attack machine was designed based on FPGAs. COPACOBANA (COst-optimized PArallel COdeBreaker) shows a similar performance as Deep Crack at considerably lower cost. This advantage is mainly due to progress in IC technology.

Since DES was a federal standard, the US government encouraged the use of DES for all non-classified data. RSA Security wished to demonstrate that DES's key length was not enough to ensure security, so they set up the DES Challenges in 1997, offering a monetary prize. The first DES Challenge was solved in 96 days by the DESCHALL Project led by Rocke Verser in Loveland, Colorado. RSA Security set up DES Challenge II-1, which was solved by distributed.net in 41 days in January and February 1998.

In 1998, the EFF built Deep Crack for less than $250,000. In response to DES Challenge II-2, on July 17, 1998, Deep Crack decrypted a DES-encrypted message after only 56 hours of work, winning $10,000. This was the final blow to DES, against which there were already some published cryptanalytic attacks. The brute force attack showed that cracking DES was actually a very practical proposition. For well-endowed governments or corporations, building a machine like Deep Crack would be no problem.

Six months later, in response to RSA Security's DES Challenge III, and in collaboration with distributed.net, the EFF used Deep Crack to decrypt another DES-encrypted message, winning another $10,000. This time, the operation took less than a day — 22 hours and 15 minutes. The decryption was completed on January 19, 1999. In October of that year, DES was reaffirmed as a federal standard, but this time the standard recommended Triple DES (also referred to as 3DES or TDES).

The small key-space of DES, and relatively high computational costs of triple DES resulted in its replacement by AES as a Federal standard, effective May 26, 2002.

14 Ağustos 2010 Cumartesi

Rubik's Cube

The Rubik's Cube is a 3-D mechanical puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik. Originally called the "Magic Cube", the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Ideal Toys in 1980 and won the German Game of the Year special award for Best Puzzle that year. As of January 2009, 350 million cubes have sold worldwide making it the world's top-selling puzzle game. It is widely considered to be the world's best-selling toy.

In a classic Rubik's Cube, each of the six faces is covered by nine stickers, among six solid colours (traditionally white, red, blue, orange, green, and yellow). A pivot mechanism enables each face to turn independently, thus mixing up the colours. For the puzzle to be solved, each face must be a solid colour. Similar puzzles have now been produced with various numbers of stickers, not all of them by Rubik. The original 3×3×3 version celebrates its thirtieth anniversary in 2010.

There are many algorithms to solve scrambled Rubik's Cubes. The minimum number of face turns needed to solve any instance of the Rubik's cube is 20. This number is also known as the diameter of the Cayley graph of the Rubik's Cube group. An algorithm that solves a cube in the minimum number of moves is known as God's algorithm.

There are two common ways to measure the length of a solution. The first is to count the number of quarter turns. The second is to count the number of face turns. A move like F2 (a half turn of the front face) would be counted as 2 moves in the quarter turn metric and as only 1 turn in the face metric.

In 2006, Silviu Radu further improved his methods to prove that every position can be solved in at most 27 face turns or 35 quarter turns. Daniel Kunkle and Gene Cooperman in 2007 used a supercomputer to show that all unsolved cubes can be solved in no more than 26 moves (in face-turn metric). Instead of attempting to solve each of the billions of variations explicitly, the computer was programmed to bring the cube to one of 15,000 states, each of which could be solved within a few extra moves. All were proved solvable in 29 moves, with most solvable in 26. Those that could not initially be solved in 26 moves were then solved explicitly, and shown that they too could be solved in 26 moves.

Tomas Rokicki reported in 2008 computational proof that all unsolved cubes could be solved in 25 moves or fewer. This was later reduced to 23 moves. In August 2008 Rokicki announced that he had a proof for 22 moves. In 2009, Tomas Rokicki proved that 29 moves in quarter turn metric is enough to solve any scrambled cube. Finally, in 2010, an international Group around Morley Davidson gave the final proof that all cube positions could be solved with a maximum of 20 face turns.

28 Temmuz 2010 Çarşamba

Metallic Hydrogen

Metallic hydrogen is a state of hydrogen which results when it is sufficiently compressed and undergoes a phase transition; it is an example of degenerate matter. Solid metallic hydrogen is predicted to consist of a crystal lattice of hydrogen nuclei (namely, protons), with a spacing which is significantly smaller than the Bohr radius. Indeed, the spacing is more comparable with the de Broglie wavelength of the electron. The electrons are unbound and behave like the conduction electrons in a metal. In liquid metallic hydrogen, protons do not have lattice ordering; rather, it is a liquid system of protons and electrons.

Liquid metallic hydrogen

Helium-4 is a liquid at normal pressure and temperatures near absolute zero, a consequence of its high zero-point energy (ZPE). The ZPE of protons in a dense state is also high, and a decline in the ordering energy (relative to the ZPE) is expected at high pressures. Arguments have been advanced by Neil Ashcroft and others that there is a melting point maximum in compressed hydrogen, but also that there may be a range of densities (at pressures around 400 GPa) where hydrogen may be a liquid metal, even at low temperatures.


Metallic hydrogen is thought to be present in large amounts in the gravitationally compressed interiors of Jupiter, Saturn, and some of the newly discovered extrasolar planets. Because previous predictions of the nature of those interiors had taken for granted metallization at a higher pressure than the one at which we now know it to happen, those predictions must now be adjusted. The new data indicate much more metallic hydrogen must exist inside Jupiter than previously thought, that it comes closer to the surface, and that therefore, Jupiter's tremendous magnetic field, the strongest of any planet in the solar system is, in turn, produced closer to the surface.

25 Temmuz 2010 Pazar


The PSP Go (model PSP-N1000) is a version of the PlayStation Portable handheld video game console manufactured by Sony. It was released on October 1, 2009 in American and European territories[1] and on November 1 in Japan. It was revealed prior to E3 2009 through Sony's Qore VOD service. Although its design is significantly different from other PSPs, it is not intended to replace the PSP 3000, which Sony will continue to manufacture, sell, and support.

Unlike previous PSP models, the PSP Go does not feature a UMD drive, but instead has 16GB of internal flash memory to store games, video, pictures, and other media.[12] This can be extended by up to 32GB with the use of a Memory Stick Micro (M2) flash card. Also unlike previous PSP models, the PSP Go's rechargeable battery is not removable or replaceable by the user. The unit is 43% lighter and 56% smaller than the original PSP-1000, and 16% lighter and 35% smaller than the PSP-3000.[6] It has a 3.8" 480×272 LCD[13] (compared to the larger 4.3" 480×272 pixel LCD on previous PSP models). The screen slides up to reveal the main controls.

The PSP Go features 802.11b Wi-Fi like its predecessors, but no longer uses a standard USB A-to-Mini-B cable common with many devices. A new proprietary multi-use connector is used for USB connectivity. A suitable USB cable is included with the unit. The new multi-use connector allows for charging and USB similar to previous units, but also allows video and sound output with the same connector (with optional Composite AV cable and Component AV cable), unlike previous offerings which had TV OUT functionality on a separate port to the USB port. Sony also offers an optional cradle for charging and USB data transfer on the PSP Go, similar to previous offerings.

Generation: Seventh
Retail availability
* NA/EU October 1, 2009[1]
* JP November 1, 2009[2]
CPU: MIPS 333 MHz[5]
Storage capacity: Memory Stick M2, 16GB of internal flash memory
Memory: 64 MB RAM
Display: 480 x 272 pixels with 16.8 million colours, 16:9 widescreen TFT LCD, 3.8 in (97 mm)
Connectivity: Wi-Fi 802.11b, USB 2.0 via Media Go Software, Bluetooth 3.0, PlayStation 3
69 mm (2.7 in) (h)
128 mm (5.0 in) (w)
16.5 mm (0.65 in) (d)
Weight: 158 grams

24 Temmuz 2010 Cumartesi


Eris, formal designation 136199 Eris, is the largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System and the ninth-largest body known to orbit the Sun directly. It is approximately 2,500 kilometres in diameter and 27% more massive than Pluto.

Eris was first identified in January 2005 by a Palomar Observatory-based team led by Mike Brown, and its identity verified later that year. It is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) native to a region of space beyond the Kuiper belt known as the scattered disc. Eris has one moon, Dysnomia; recent observations have found no evidence of further satellites. The current distance from the Sun is 96.7 AU, roughly three times that of Pluto. With the exception of some comets the pair are the most distant known natural objects in the Solar System.

Because Eris is larger than Pluto, its discoverers and NASA initially described it as the Solar System’s tenth planet. This, along with the prospect of other similarly sized objects being discovered in the future, motivated the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to define the term planet for the first time. Under a then-new IAU definition approved on August 24, 2006, Eris is a "dwarf planet" along with Pluto, Ceres, Haumea and Makemake.

Eris is named after the Greek goddess Eris, a personification of strife and discord. The name was assigned on September 13, 2006 following an unusually long period in which it was known by the provisional designation 2003 UB313, which was granted automatically by the IAU under their naming protocols for minor planets. The regular adjectival form of Eris is Eridian.


Eris has an orbital period of 557 years, and as of 2009 lies at 96.7 astronomical units from the Sun, almost its maximum possible distance. (Its aphelion is 97.5 AU.) Eris came to perihelion between 1698 and 1699, to aphelion around 1977, and will return to perihelion around 2256[34] to 2258. Eris and its moon are currently the most distant known objects in the Solar System apart from long-period comets and space probes. However, approximately forty known TNOs, most notably 2000 OO67 and Sedna, while currently closer to the Sun than Eris, have greater average orbital distances than Eris' semimajor axis of 67.7 AU.

The Eridian orbit is highly eccentric, and brings Eris to within 37.9 AU of the Sun, a typical perihelion for scattered objects. This is within the orbit of Pluto, but still safe from direct interaction with Neptune (29.8–30.4 AU). Pluto, on the other hand, like other plutinos, follows a less inclined and less eccentric orbit and, protected by orbital resonance, can cross Neptune’s orbit. (It is possible that Eris is in a 17:5 resonance with Neptune, though further observations will be required to know for sure.[37]) Unlike the eight planets, whose orbits all lie roughly in the same plane as the Earth's, Eris' orbit is highly inclined: It is tilted at an angle of about 44 degrees to the ecliptic. In about 800 years, Eris will be closer to the Sun than Pluto for some time.

Eris currently has an apparent magnitude of 18.7, making it bright enough to be detectable to some amateur telescopes. A 200 mm telescope with a CCD can detect Eris under favorable conditions. The reason it had not been noticed until now is because of its steep orbital inclination; most searches for large outer Solar System objects concentrate on the ecliptic plane, where most bodies are found.

Eris is now in the constellation Cetus. It was in Sculptor from 1876 until 1929 and Phoenix from roughly 1840 until 1875. In 2036 it will enter Pisces and stay there until 2065, when it will enter Aries. It will then move into the northern sky, entering Perseus in 2128 and Camelopardalis (where it will reach its northernmost declination) in 2173. Because the orbit of Eris is highly inclined, it only passes through a few constellations of the traditional Zodiac.

Size, mass, and density

The diameter of Eris has been measured to be 2,397 km, give or take 100 km, using images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).[38][39] The size of an object depends on its absolute magnitude and the albedo (the amount of light it reflects). At a distance of 97 AU, an object with a radius of 3,000 km would have an angular size of 40 milliarcseconds, which is directly measurable with the HST; although resolving such small objects is at the very limit of Hubble's capabilities, sophisticated image processing techniques such as deconvolution can be used to measure such angular sizes fairly accurately.)

This makes Eris only 0-8% larger than Pluto, which is about 2,306 km across. It also indicates an albedo of 0.86, higher than any other large body in the Solar System other than Enceladus. It is speculated that the high albedo is due to the surface ices being replenished due to temperature fluctuations as Eris' eccentric orbit takes it closer and farther from the Sun.

In 2007, a series of observations of the largest trans-Neptunian objects with the Spitzer Space Telescope gave an estimate of Eris's diameter of 2,600 (+400; -200) km.[8] The Spitzer and Hubble estimates overlap in the range of 2,400-2,500 km, 4-8% larger than Pluto.

The mass of Eris can be calculated with much greater precision. Based on the currently accepted value for Dysnomia's period, 15.774 days, Eris is 27 percent more massive than Pluto.

16 Temmuz 2010 Cuma


HTML5 is currently under development as the next major revision of the HTML standard. Like its immediate predecessors, HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.1, HTML5 is a standard for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web. The new standard incorporates features like video playback and drag-and-drop that have been previously dependent on third-party browser plug-ins such as Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, and Google Gears.

The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) started work on the specification in June 2004 under the name Web Applications 1.0.[1] As of March 2010, the specification is in the Draft Standard state at the WHATWG, and in Working Draft state at the W3C. Ian Hickson of Google, Inc. is the editor of HTML5.

The HTML5 specification was adopted as the starting point of the work of the new HTML working group of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 2007. This working group published the First Public Working Draft of the specification on January 22, 2008. The specification is an ongoing work, and is expected to remain so for many years, although parts of HTML5 are going to be finished and implemented in browsers before the whole specification reaches final Recommendation status.

According to the W3C timetable, it is estimated that HTML5 will reach W3C Recommendation by late 2010. However, the First Public Working Draft estimate was missed by 8 months, and Last Call and Candidate Recommendation were expected to be reached in 2008, but as of July 2010 HTML5 is still at Working Draft stage in the W3C. HTML5 has been at Last Call in the WHATWG since October 2009.


HTML5 introduces a number of new elements and attributes that reflect typical usage on modern websites. Some of them are semantic replacements for common uses of generic block (
) and inline () elements, for example

13 Temmuz 2010 Salı

Linus Torvalds

Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer best known for having initiated the development of the Linux kernel and git revision control system. He later became the chief architect of the Linux kernel, and now acts as the project's coordinator.

Early years

Linus Torvalds was born in Helsinki, Finland, the son of journalists Anna and Nils Torvalds, and the grandson of poet Ole Torvalds. Both of his parents were campus radicals at the University of Helsinki in the 1960s. His family belongs to the Swedish-speaking minority (5.5%) of Finland's population. Torvalds was named after Linus Pauling, the American Nobel Prize-winning chemist, although in the book Rebel Code: Linux and the Open Source Revolution, Torvalds is quoted as saying, "I think I was named equally for Linus the Peanuts cartoon character", noting that this makes him half "Nobel-prize-winning chemist" and half "blanket-carrying cartoon character".

Torvalds attended the University of Helsinki from 1988 to 1996, graduating with a master's degree in computer science from NODES research group. His academic career was interrupted after his first year of study when he joined the Finnish Army, selecting the 11-month officer training program to fulfill the mandatory military service of Finland. In the army he holds the rank of second lieutenant, with the role of a ballistic calculation officer. In 1990, he resumed his university studies, and was exposed to UNIX for the first time, in the form of a DEC MicroVAX running ULTRIX. His M.Sc. thesis was titled Linux: A Portable Operating System.

His interest in computers began with a Commodore VIC-20. After the VIC-20 he purchased a Sinclair QL which he modified extensively, especially its operating system. He programmed an assembly language and a text editor for the QL, as well as a few games. He is known to have written a Pac-Man clone named Cool Man. On January 5, 1991 he purchased an Intel 80386-based IBM PC and spent a month playing the game Prince of Persia before receiving his MINIX copy which in turn enabled him to begin his work on Linux.

Later years

After a visit to Transmeta in late 1996, he accepted a position at the company in California, where he would work from February 1997 through June 2003. He then moved to the Open Source Development Labs, which has since merged with the Free Standards Group to become the Linux Foundation, under whose auspices he continues to work. In June 2004, Torvalds and his family moved to Portland, Oregon to be closer to the OSDL's Beaverton, Oregon-based headquarters.

From 1997 to 1999 he was involved in 86open helping to choose the standard binary format for Linux and Unix.

Red Hat and VA Linux, both leading developers of Linux-based software, presented Torvalds with stock options in gratitude for his creation. In 1999, both companies went public and Torvalds' net worth shot up to roughly $20 million.

His personal mascot is a penguin nicknamed Tux, which has been widely adopted by the Linux community as the mascot of the Linux kernel.

Although Torvalds believes "open source is the only right way to do software", he also has said that he uses the "best tool for the job", even if that includes proprietary software. He has been criticized for his use and alleged advocacy of the proprietary BitKeeper software for version control in the Linux kernel. However, Torvalds has since written a free-software replacement for BitKeeper called Git. Torvalds has commented on official GNOME developmental mailing lists that, in terms of desktop environments, he encourages users to switch to KDE. However, Torvalds thought KDE 4.0 was a "disaster" because of its lack of maturity, so he temporarily switched to GNOME.

About 2% of the Linux kernel as of 2006 was written by Torvalds himself. Since Linux has had thousands of contributors, such a percentage represents a significant personal contribution to the overall amount of code. Torvalds remains the ultimate authority on what new code is incorporated into the standard Linux kernel.

11 Temmuz 2010 Pazar


Tandem NonStopII System (1981)

NonStop can refer to the line of HP Integrity NonStop computers, the line of Tandem NonStop computers that preceded them, or the NonStop OS operating system that is designed for them. NonStop systems are based on an integrated hardware/software stack. They are self-healing systems designed with redundant components and automatic reconfiguration in the event of a component failure, to prevent against "single-point failures". The systems run the NonStop OS operating system and the database management systems NonStop SQL and Enscribe.

Originally introduced in 1976 by Tandem Computers Inc., the line was later owned by Compaq (from 1997) and Hewlett-Packard (since 2003). In 2005, the current product line of HP Integrity NonStop servers, based on Intel Itanium microprocessors, was introduced.

Early NonStop applications had to be specially coded to be fault-tolerant. That obstacle was removed in 1983 with the introduction of the Transaction Monitoring Facility (TMF), which handles the various aspects of fault tolerance on the system level, transparent to the application.

NonStop OS

NonStop OS is a message-based operating system designed for software fault tolerance. It works with process pairs and ensures that backup processes in different CPU's take over in case of a process or CPU failure. Data integrity is maintained during those takeovers, no transactions or data are lost or corrupted.

NonStop Hardware

The HP Integrity NonStop computers are a line of fault-tolerant server computers, optimized for transaction processing and providing an extreme level of availability and data integrity. Average availability levels of 99.999% have been observed. NonStop systems feature a massive parallel processing (MPP) architecture and provide linear scalability. Each CPU (systems can be expanded up to over 4000 CPUs) runs its own copy of the OS. This is a "share nothing" arrangement and no "diminishing returns" occur as more processors are added.

Due to the integrated hardware/software stack and a single system image for even the largest configurations, system management requirements for NonStop systems are rather low. In most deployments there is just a single production server, not a complex server farm.

Most customers also have a backup server in a remote location for disaster recovery. There are standard products to keep the data of the production and the backup server in sync, hence there is fast takeover and no data loss also in a disaster situation with the production server being disabled or destroyed.

NonStop systems are inherently very secure, no security breach by outside hackers has been reported so far.

HP also developed a data warehouse and business intelligence server line, HP Neoview, based on the NonStop line. It acts as a database server, providing NonStop OS and NonStop SQL, but lacks the transaction processing functionality of the original NonStop systems.

9 Temmuz 2010 Cuma

Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition

Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition is designed for infrastructures demanding high security and reliability. Windows Server 2003 is available for x86, Itanium, and x86-64 processors. It supports a maximum of up to 32 processors on 32-bit or 64 processors on 64-bit hardware. 32-bit architecture also limits memory addressability to 64 GB, while the 64-bit versions support up to 1 TB. Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition, also allows limiting processor and memory usage on a per-application basis.

Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition also supports Non-Uniform Memory Access. If supported by the system, Windows, with help from the system firmware creates a Static Resource Affinity Table (SRAT) that defines the NUMA topology of the system. Windows then uses this table to optimize memory accesses, and provide NUMA awareness to applications, thereby increasing the efficiency of thread scheduling and memory management.

Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition has better support for Storage Area Networks (SAN). It features a service which uses Windows sockets to emulate TCP/IP communication over native SAN service providers, thereby allowing a SAN to be accessed over any TCP/IP channel. With this, any application that can communicate over TCP/IP can use a SAN, without any modification to the application.

Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition, also supports 8-node clustering. Clustering increases availability and fault tolerance of server installations, by distributing and replicating the service among many servers. Windows supports clustering, with each cluster having its own dedicated storage, or all clusters connected to a common Storage Area Network (SAN), which can be running on Windows as well as non-Windows Operating systems. The SAN may be connected to other computers as well.

Windows Server 2003 R2

Windows Server 2003 R2, an update of Windows Server 2003, was released to manufacturing on 6 December 2005. It is distributed on two CDs, with one CD being the Windows Server 2003 SP1 CD. The other CD adds many optionally installable features for Windows Server 2003. The R2 update was released for all x86 and x64 versions. Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise Edition was not released for Itanium.

Service Pack 2

Service Pack 2 for Windows Server 2003 was released on 13 March 2007. The release date was originally scheduled for the first half of 2006. On 13 June 2006, Microsoft made an initial test version of Service Pack 2 available to Microsoft Connect users, with a build number of 2721. This was followed by build 2805, known as Beta 2 Refresh. The latest build is the build 3959.

Microsoft has described Service Pack 2 as a "standard" service pack release containing previously-released security updates, hotfixes, and reliability and performance improvements. In addition, Service Pack 2 contains Microsoft Management Console 3.0, Windows Deployment Services (which replaces Remote Installation Services), support for WPA2, and improvements to IPsec and MSConfig. Service Pack 2 also adds Windows Server 2003 Scalable Networking Pack (SNP), which allows hardware acceleration for processing network packets, thereby enabling faster throughput. SNP was previously available as an out-of-band update for Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1.

As of October 2009, no further Service Packs are planned for Windows Server 2003.

Solar Impulse project

Solar Impulse is a European long-range solar powered plane project being undertaken at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The project is promoted by Bertrand Piccard, who co-piloted the first balloon to circle the world non-stop. This project hopes to repeat that feat using only solar power. The first aircraft, bearing the Swiss aircraft registration code of HB-SIA, is a one-seater, capable of taking off under its own power, and intended to remain airborne up to 36 hours. Building on the experience of this prototype, a slightly larger follow-on design (HB-SIB) is planned to make circumnavigation of the globe in 20–25 days.

Design and development

Piccard initiated the Solar Impulse project in 2003, but since then the team has grown to a multi-disciplinary team of 50 specialists from six countries, assisted by about 100 outside advisers.

The project is partially financed by private companies such as Solvay, Omega SA, Deutsche Bank, Bayer MaterialScience, Altran and Swisscom. The EPFL, the European Space Agency (ESA) and Dassault provide technical expertise.

Achieved timeline
2003: Feasibility study at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
2004–2005: Development of the concept.
2006: Simulation of long-haul flights.
2006–09: Prototype.
2009: First flight of prototype

Planned timeline
2009–10: Test flights with prototype
2011: Building HB-SIB
2011–12: Test flights
2012: Circumnavigation flight

Planned second aeroplane (HB-SIB)

HB-SIB, the Swiss registration code borne by the second Solar Impulse aeroplane, is planned for completion in 2011, with a pressurized cockpit and advanced avionics to allow for trans-continental and trans-oceanic flights.

The wingspan of HB-SIB will be 80 m (260 ft), slightly wider than the wingspan of an Airbus A380, the largest passenger airliner in the world.

The cockpit will include cabin pressurization, supplemental oxygen and various environmental support to the pilot to allow a cruise altitude of 12,000 metres (39,000 ft).

The team hopes that a round-the-world flight will be possible in 2012. The flight would circle the world in the northern hemisphere near the equator. Five stops are planned to change pilots. Each leg will last three to four days, limited by the physiology of the human pilot.

Once improved battery efficiency makes it possible to reduce the weight, a two-seater is envisaged to make a non-stop circumnavigation.

General characteristics
Crew: 1
Payload: Lithium-ion batteries: 450 kg, (capacity: 200 Wh/kg = 90 KWh)
Length: 21.85 m (71.7 ft)
Wingspan: 63.4 m (208 ft)
Height: 6.40 m (21.0 ft)
Wing area: 11,628 photovoltaic cells: 200 m2 (2,200 sq ft)
Loaded weight: 1600 kg (3,500 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 2000 kg (4,400 lb)
Powerplant: 4× electric motors, (10 HP) each
Take-off speed: 35 kilometres per hour (22 mph)

Cruise speed: 70 kilometres per hour (43 mph)
Endurance: 36 hours
Service ceiling: 8,500 m (27,900 ft) Maximum altitude: 12,000 metres (39,000 ft)

6 Temmuz 2010 Salı

Osman Hamdi Bey

Osman Hamdi Bey (1842 – 24 February 1910) was an Ottoman statesman, intellectual, art expert and also a prominent and pioneering Turkish painter. He was also an accomplished archaeologist, and is considered as the pioneer of the museum curator's profession in Turkey. He was the founder of Istanbul Archaeology Museums and of İstanbul Academy of Fine Arts (Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi in Turkish), known today as the Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts.

The Tortoise Trainer

The painting expresses a sarcastic innuendo on the painter's own view of his style of work compared to those of his collaborators and apprentices, and is also a reference to the historical fact of tortoises having been employed for illuminative and decorative purposes, by placing candles on the shell, in evening outings during the Tulip Era in the early 18th century. The painting was acquired by the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation and is currently on display at the Pera Museum in İstanbul, which was established by this foundation.


Osman Hamdi exhibited three paintings at the 1867 Paris Exposition Universelle. None seem to have survived today, but their titles were Repose of the Gypsies, Black Sea Soldier Lying in Wait, and Death of the Soldier. An important step in his career was his assignment as the director of the Imperial Museum (Müze-i Hümayun) in 1881. He used his position as museum director to develop the museum and rewrite the antiquities laws and to create nationally sponsored archaeological expeditions. In 1882, he instituted and became director of the Academy of Fine Arts, which provided Ottomans with training in aesthetics and artistic techniques without leaving the empire. In 1884, he oversaw the promulgation of a Regulation prohibiting historical artifacts from being smuggled abroad (Asar-ı Atîka Nizamnamesi), a giant step in constituting a legal framework of preservation of the antiquities. Representatives or middlemen of 19th century European Powers routinely smuggled artifacts with historical value from within the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire (which then comprised the geographies of ancient Greek and Mesopotamian civilizations, among others), often resorting to shadily obtained licenses or bribes, to enrich museums in European capitals.

He conducted the first scientific based archaeological researches done by a Turkish team. His digs included sites as varied as the Commagene tomb-sanctuary in Nemrut Dağı in southeastern Anatolia (a top tourist's venue in Turkey and a UNESCO World Heritage Site today, within the Adıyaman Province), the Hekate sanctuary in Lagina in southwestern Anatolia (also much visited, and within the Muğla Province today), and Sidon in Lebanon. The sarcophagi he discovered in Sidon (including the one known as the Alexander Sarcophagus, although this sarcophagus is thought to contain the remains of a Persian noble who was also the governor of Babylon. ]]) are considered among the worldwide jewels of archaeological findings. To lodge these, he started building what is today the Istanbul Archaeology Museum in 1881. The museum officially opened in 1891 under his directorship.

Throughout his professional career as museum and academy director, Osman Hamdi continued to paint in the style of his teachers, Gérôme and Boulanger.

4 Temmuz 2010 Pazar

Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon: Future Soldier

Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon: Future Soldier (previously known as Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon 4) is a video game published by Ubisoft and due for release in early 2011. Excluding expansions, it is the fifth installment in the Ghost Recon series, and was announced to be in development by Ubisoft on January 22, 2009. The game will be a futuristic take on the Ghost Recon series.

The story will take place in Northern Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The Ghosts will be fighting an ultra-nationalist force that took control of Russia and are invading neighboring countries.

Initially, the title was revealed to be Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Predator by an OFLC release. However in December 2009, "Ghost Recon: Future Soldier" was trademarked by Ubisoft, raising speculation that this could be the name for the upcoming Ghost Recon 4. This was subsequently confirmed by an official announcement.

The release of Future Soldier was initially targeted for the 2009-2010 fiscal year, however Ubisoft later announced that the release date would be pushed back until the 2010-2011 fiscal year to "strengthen" its video game line-up. In May 2010, Ubisoft announced that the release of Future Soldier would be delayed until the "March quarter of 2011".

2 Temmuz 2010 Cuma

Connection Machine

The Connection Machine was a series of supercomputers that grew out of Danny Hillis's research in the early 1980s at MIT on alternatives to the traditional von Neumann architecture of computation. The Connection Machine was originally intended for applications in artificial intelligence and symbolic processing, but later versions found greater success in the field of computational science.

Danny Hillis and Sheryl Handler founded Thinking Machines in Waltham, Massachusetts (it was later moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts) in 1983 and assembled a team to develop the CM-1 Connection Machine. This was a "massively parallel" hypercubic arrangement of thousands of microprocessors, each with its own 4 kbits of RAM, which together executed in a SIMD fashion. The CM-1, depending on the configuration, had as many as 65,536 processors. The individual processors were extremely simple, processing one bit at a time.

The CM-1 and CM-2 took the form of a cube 1.5 meters on a side, divided equally into eight smaller cubes. Each sub-cube contained 16 printed circuit boards and a main processor called a sequencer. Each printed circuit board contained 32 chips. Each chip contained a communication channel called a router, 16 processors, 16 RAMs. The CM-1 as a whole had a hypercubic routing network, a main RAM, and an input/output processor. It was connected to a switching device called a nexus.

In order to improve its commercial viability, the CM-2, launched in 1987, added Weitek 3132 floating-point numeric co-processors and more RAM to the system. 32 of the original one-bit processors shared each numeric processor. The CM-2 could be configured with up to 512 MB of RAM, and a RAID hard disk array, called a DataVault, of up to 25 GB.

Two later variants of the CM-2 were also produced, the smaller CM-2a with either 4096 or 8192 single-bit processors, and the faster CM-200.
The light panels of FROSTBURG, a CM-5, on display at the National Cryptologic Museum. The panels were used to check the usage of the processing nodes, and to run diagnostics.

Due to its origins in AI research, the software for the CM-1/2/200 single-bit processor was influenced by the Lisp programming language and a version of Common Lisp, *Lisp (spoken: "Star-Lisp"), was implemented on the CM-1. Other early languages included Karl Sims' IK and Cliff Lasser's URDU. Much system utility software for the CM-1/2 was written in *Lisp.

With the CM-5, announced in 1991, Thinking Machines switched from the CM-2's hypercubic architecture of simple processors to an entirely new MIMD architecture based on a fat tree network of SPARC RISC processors. The later CM-5E replaced the SPARC processors with faster SuperSPARCs.


In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit is a unit of quantum information —the quantum analogue of the classical bit —with additional dimensions associated to the quantum properties of a physical atom. The physical construction of a quantum computer is itself an arrangement of entangled atoms, and the qubit represents both the state memory and the state of entanglement in a system. A quantum computation is performed by initializing a system of qubits with a quantum algorithm —"initialization" here referring to some advanced physical process that puts the system into an entangled state.

The qubit is described by a state vector in a two-level quantum-mechanical system, which is formally equivalent to a two-dimensional vector space over the complex numbers.

Quantum Computer

A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from traditional computers based on transistors. The basic principle behind quantum computation is that quantum properties can be used to represent data and perform operations on these data. A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer.

Although quantum computing is still in its infancy, experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits (quantum bit). Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national government and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis.

If large-scale quantum computers can be built, they will be able to solve certain problems much faster than any current classical computers (for example Shor's algorithm). Quantum computers don't allow the computations of functions that are not theoretically computable by classical computers, i.e. they do not alter the Church–Turing thesis. The gain is only in efficiency.


Tetris is a puzzle video game originally designed and programmed by Alexey Pajitnov in the Soviet Union. It was created on June 6, 1984, while he was working for the Dorodnicyn Computing Centre of the Academy of Science of the USSR in Moscow. He derived its name from the Greek numerical prefix tetra- (all of the game's pieces, known as Tetrominoes, contain four segments) and tennis, Pajitnov's favorite sport.

The Tetris game is a popular use of tetrominoes, the four element special case of polyominoes. Polyominoes have been used in popular puzzles since at least 1907, and the name is given by the mathematician Solomon W. Golomb in 1953. However, even the enumeration of pentominoes is dated to antiquity.

The game (or one of its many variants) is available for nearly every video game console and computer operating system, as well as on devices such as graphing calculators, mobile phones, portable media players, PDAs, Network music players and even as an Easter egg on non-media products like oscilloscopes. It has even inspired Tetris serving dishes and been played on the sides of various buildings, with the record holder for the world's largest fully functional game of Tetris being an effort by Dutch students in 1995 that lit up all 15 floors of the Electrical Engineering department at Delft University of Technology.

While versions of Tetris were sold for a range of 1980s home computer platforms, it was the hugely successful handheld version for the Game Boy launched in 1989 that established the reputation of the game as one of the most popular ever. Electronic Gaming Monthly's 100th issue had Tetris in first place as "Greatest Game of All Time". In 2007, Tetris came in second place in IGN's "100 Greatest Video Games of All Time". It has sold more than 70 million copies. In January 2010, it was announced that Tetris has sold more than 100 million copies for cell phones alone since 2005.