Introduction to Monte Carlo Methods
Monte Carlo methods are a widely used class of computational algorithms for simulating the behavior of various physical and mathematical systems, and for other computations. They are distinguished from other simulation methods (such as molecular dynamics) by being stochastic, that is nondeterministic in some manner – usually by using random numbers (in practice, pseudo-random numbers) – as opposed to deterministic algorithms. Because of the repetition of algorithms and the large number of calculations involved, Monte Carlo is a method suited to calculation using a computer, using many computer simulation techniques.
A Monte Carlo algorithm is often a numerical Monte Carlo method used to find solutions to mathematical problems (which may have many variables) that cannot easily be solved, for example, by integral calculus, or other numerical methods. For many types of problems, its efficiency relative to other numerical methods increases as the dimension of the problem increases. Or it may be a method for solving other mathematical problems that rely on
Monte Carlo methods have also proven efficient in solving coupled integral differential equations of radiation fields and energy transport, and thus these methods have been used in global illumination computations which produce photorealistic images of virtual 3D models, with applications in video games, architecture, design, computer generated films, special effects in cinema, business, economics and other fields.